Using a Static Camera

A how-to guide for using a static camera to blend between player viewpoints.

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In this How-to tutorial you will create a static (or fixed) camera angle that is used for the player's perspective during gameplay in a third person example map, and then you will create a trigger volume which will transition your viewpoint to the new static camera once your character overlaps the volume. Upon completing this tutorial, you can take the process used here and apply it to your own game to set up a fixed perspective for a player.

Creating The Static Camera Actor

구현 방법 선택

블루프린트

C++

[INCLUDE:InteractiveExperiences\UsingCameras\UsingAStaticCamera\UsingAStaticCamera-BP#StaticCam_Blueprint1]
  1. Begin by creating a New > Games > Third Person > C++ project named StaticCameras.

  2. Launch the C++ Class Wizard, enable the checkbox for Show All Classes, then type CameraActor within the search field to select and create your new Camera Actor class named ExampleCameraActor.

    New C++ Camera Actor class

  3. From the C++ Class panel, right click on your ExampleCamera and from the dropdown C++ Class actions menu select Create a Blueprint class based on ExampleCameraActor. Then drag an instance of BP_ExampleCameraActor into the level.

    Click image to expand.

Level Setup

In order to demonstrate the transition of perspectives between the player's camera and the static camera Actor, you will need to set up the scene. You can accomplish this by modifying some of the static mesh geometry from the third person template level.

  1. Begin by navigating to the world outliner panel, and shift select Floor, Wall6, Wall7, Wall8, and Wall9 from the ArenaGeometry > Arena folder.

    Selecting floors and walls in the World Outliner

  2. Alt-click and drag the Transform gizmo to create a duplicate floor and wall setup.

    drag duplicating floors and walls using the Transform gizmo

  3. This will result in the creation of Floor2, Wall10, Wall11, Wall12, and Wall13.

    Click image to expand.

  4. Move the newly duplicated static meshes to resemble the layout below, a new room duplicating the first but without any contents.

    Click image to expand.

  1. From the world outliner, select Wall9 and Wall12 (the walls connecting the two rooms), and set their X Scale values to 14.

    X Scale value in Details panel

  2. Select both Wall9, and Wall10, then move them using the Transform gizmo so that they form a partition between rooms with a gap as shown below.

    Move walls to create partition

  3. Your completed level setup should look similar to the image below, with a second room connected to the first by an opening in the wall.

    Click image to expand.

Camera Perspective Setup

Now that you have completed the level setup, you can place the BP_ExampleCameraActor in the level to get a better idea of the view the player will have once they overlap the trigger volume. You can take a First Person perspective from the Camera's Point of View by locking the Viewport to the Camera Actor and entering Pilot mode.

  1. With the Camera selected in the level, right-click on it, then from the context menu select Pilot 'CameraActor'.

    Context menu Pilot CameraActor

  2. You can now move around the Viewport using the WASD keys while holding the Left or Right Mouse Button down. While you fly around the level, the Camera's position will move along with your movement allowing you to get an idea of the perspective the camera will take during gameplay.

  3. To unlock the Camera, click the Unlock button.

    Unlock button

    The camera will remain where it was positioned when you unlocked it. The icon next to the Unlock button allows you to toggle between showing the in-game camera view or the level editor view.

  4. Pilot the Camera into a position looking down on the second room similar to the gif below.

    Pilot Camera into position looking down

  5. Your completed camera scene setup should look similar to the image below, with a static camera looking down on the new room along with the original camera following the third-person actor.

    Click image to expand.

Creating the Overlap Trigger Actor

In this example, the trigger Actor functions as the transition manager between the player's camera view point and the static camera view point, once the player overlaps it's box component volume bounds, a transitional blend will occur between the perspectives.

[INCLUDE:InteractiveExperiences\UsingCameras\UsingAStaticCamera\UsingAStaticCamera-BP#StaticCam_Blueprint2]
  1. Using the C++ Class Wizard, create a new Actor class named BlendTriggerVolume.

    New C++ Blend Trigger Volume class

  2. Navigate to your BlendTriggerVolume.h file, and declare the following code in your class definition.

    protected:
    
    //Collision Bounds of the Actor Volume
    UPROPERTY(EditAnywhere, BlueprintReadWrite)
        class UBoxComponent* OverlapVolume;
    
        //Camera Actor which the Actor Volume blends to
        UPROPERTY(EditAnywhere, BlueprintReadWrite)
        TSubclassOf<ACameraActor> CameraToFind;
    
        //Blend time for camera transition
    UPROPERTY(EditAnywhere, BlueprintReadWrite)
    float CameraBlendTime; 
    
    //Begin and End Overlap methods for our OverlapVolume Actor
        virtual void NotifyActorBeginOverlap(AActor* OtherActor);
    
        virtual void NotifyActorEndOverlap(AActor* OtherActor);
  1. Next, navigate to your BlendTriggerVolume.cpp file to set up your constructor and box component overlap methods. Declare the following include class libraries.

    #include "Components/BoxComponent.h"

    #include "StaticCamerasCharacter.h"

    #include "Camera/CameraActor.h"

    #include "Runtime/Engine/Classes/Kismet/GameplayStatics.h"

  2. In the constructor ABlendTriggerVolume::ABlendTriggerVolume, declare the following code.

    ABlendTriggerVolume::ABlendTriggerVolume()
    {
    //Create box component default components
    OverlapVolume = CreateDefaultSubobject<UBoxComponent>(TEXT("CameraProximityVolume"));
    //Set the box component attachment to the root component. 
    OverlapVolume->SetupAttachment(RootComponent);
    }
  3. Next, implement your NotifyActorBeginOverlap and NotifyActorEndOverlap class methods:

    void ABlendTriggerVolume::NotifyActorBeginOverlap(AActor* OtherActor){
    //Cast check to see if overlapped Actor is Third Person Player Character
    
    if (AStaticCamerasCharacter* PlayerCharacterCheck = Cast<AStaticCamerasCharacter>(OtherActor))
        {
    
    //Cast to Player Character's PlayerController
    
    if (APlayerController* PlayerCharacterController = Cast<APlayerController>(PlayerCharacterCheck->GetController()))
            {
                //Array to contain found Camera Actors
                TArray<AActor*> FoundActors;
    
     //Utility function to populate array with all Camera Actors in the level
    
    UGameplayStatics::GetAllActorsOfClass(GetWorld(), CameraToFind, FoundActors);
    
    //Sets Player Controller view to the first CameraActor found
    PlayerCharacterController->SetViewTargetWithBlend(FoundActors[0], CameraBlendTime, EViewTargetBlendFunction::VTBlend_Linear);
            }
        }
    
    }
    
    void ABlendTriggerVolume::NotifyActorEndOverlap(AActor* OtherActor){
        if (AStaticCamerasCharacter* PlayerCharacterCheck = Cast<AStaticCamerasCharacter>(OtherActor))
    {
      if (APlayerController* PlayerCharacterController = Cast<APlayerController>(PlayerCharacterCheck->GetController()))
    {
    
    //Blend to Player Character's Camera Component.
    PlayerCharacterController->SetViewTargetWithBlend(PlayerCharacterController->GetPawn(), CameraBlendTime, EViewTargetBlendFunction::VTBlend_Linear);
    }
          }
    }
  4. Compile your code.

Finished Code

BlendTriggerVolume.h

#pragma once

#include "CoreMinimal.h"
#include "GameFramework/Actor.h"
#include "BlendTriggerVolume.generated.h"

UCLASS()
class STATICCAMERAS_API ABlendTriggerVolume : public AActor
{
    GENERATED_BODY()

public:    
    // Sets default values for this actor's properties
    ABlendTriggerVolume();

protected:
    //Collision Bounds of the Actor Volume
UPROPERTY(EditAnywhere, BlueprintReadWrite)
    class UBoxComponent* OverlapVolume;

    //Camera Actor which the Actor Volume blends to
    UPROPERTY(EditAnywhere, BlueprintReadWrite)
    TSubclassOf<ACameraActor> CameraToFind;

    //Blend time for camera transition
UPROPERTY(EditAnywhere, BlueprintReadWrite, meta =(ClampMin = 0.0f ))
float CameraBlendTime; 

//Begin and End Overlap Actor methods for our OverlapVolume Actor.

    //Begin and End Overlap methods for our OverlapVolume Actor
    virtual void NotifyActorBeginOverlap(AActor* OtherActor);

    virtual void NotifyActorEndOverlap(AActor* OtherActor);
};

BlendTriggerVolume.cpp

#include "BlendTriggerVolume.h"
#include "Components/BoxComponent.h"
#include "StaticCamerasCharacter.h"
#include "Camera/CameraActor.h"
#include "Runtime/Engine/Classes/Kismet/GameplayStatics.h"

// Sets default values
ABlendTriggerVolume::ABlendTriggerVolume()
{     

//Create box component default components
OverlapVolume = CreateDefaultSubobject<UBoxComponent>(TEXT("CameraProximityVolume"));

//Set the box component attachment to the root component. OverlapVolume->SetupAttachment(RootComponent);

//Set the CameraBlendTime
CameraBlendTime = 1.0f;

}
// Called when the game starts or when spawned

void ABlendTriggerVolume::BeginPlay()
{
Super::BeginPlay();
}

void ABlendTriggerVolume::NotifyActorBeginOverlap(AActor * OtherActor)
{

//Cast check to see if overlapped Actor is Third Person Player Character     

if (AStaticCamerasCharacter* PlayerCharacterCheck = Cast<AStaticCamerasCharacter>(OtherActor))
{
//Cast to Player Character's PlayerController

if (APlayerController* PlayerCharacterController = Cast<APlayerController>(PlayerCharacterCheck->GetController()))
    {        
//Array to contain found Camera Actors
TArray<AActor*> FoundActors;

 //Utility function to populate array with all Camera Actors in the level
UGameplayStatics::GetAllActorsOfClass(GetWorld(), CameraToFind, FoundActors);

//Sets Player Controller view to the first CameraActor found PlayerCharacterController->SetViewTargetWithBlend(FoundActors[0], CameraBlendTime, EViewTargetBlendFunction::VTBlend_Linear);
}
}

} 
void ABlendTriggerVolume::NotifyActorEndOverlap(AActor* OtherActor)
{
    if (AStaticCamerasCharacter* PlayerCharacterCheck = Cast<AStaticCamerasCharacter>(OtherActor))
{
  if (APlayerController* PlayerCharacterController = Cast<APlayerController>(PlayerCharacterCheck->GetController()))
{

//Blend to Player Character's Camera Component.
PlayerCharacterController->SetViewTargetWithBlend(PlayerCharacterController->GetPawn(), CameraBlendTime, EViewTargetBlendFunction::VTBlend_Linear);
     }
 }

 }
// Called every frame
void ABlendTriggerVolume::Tick(float DeltaTime)
{
Super::Tick(DeltaTime);
}

Setting up the Overlap Trigger Actor

Now that you have created your overlap Actor, you will need to place it into the level and set up its bounds.

  1. Begin by navigating to your C++ Classes folder, right-click on your BlendTriggerVolume class, select Create Blueprint Class based on BlendTriggerVolume, then name your Blueprint Actor BP_BlendTriggerVolume.

    Create Blueprint class

  2. From the class defaults, navigate to Camera To Find in the Details panel, open the drop down menu, then select BP_ExampleCameraActor.

    FInding the camera

  3. Optionally, you can change the default blend time for this Blueprint without having to go back into the source code, or affecting other Blueprints with the same inherited parent class.

    Change default Blend time

  4. Compile and Save.

    Compile button

  5. From the Content Browser, drag an instance of BP_BlendTriggerVolume into the level.

    Click image to expand.

  6. Move the BP_BlendTriggerVolume into the room with your BP_ExampleCameraActor, and from the Details panel select the box component. Navigate to the Shape category and modify the Box Extent X, Y, and Z values so the volume will fit your room.

    Click image to expand.

  7. From the Main Editor View, click the Play button to play in the Editor.

End Result

When the game starts, the player controls their character's movement using WASD. Upon overlapping the BP_BlendTriggerVolume the camera view is assigned to the Camera Actor that you have created and placed in your level, and the view will switch to an overhead shot of the player-controlled character.

Move walls to create partition

You may have also noticed that the view is letterboxed; you can disable this by un-checking the Constrain Aspect Ratio option inside the Details panel for the Camera Actor.

Constrain Aspect Ratio checkbox

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